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【1】 单选

  Numbers are sexy. Facebook and YouTube prominently display counts of friends, followers, likes and views to seduce visitors. Does it really make sense, though, to measure social media influence in the digital era using these means? Certainly, numbers are not irrelevant. Often, high connection counts on- line correlate with high connection counts offline, not to mention that virtual connections can certainly be real in and of themselves.
  Yet these numbers come with a cost. The presence of "trolls" and“flame wars" where users con- taminate online discussion with offensive or irrelevant material is a frequent issue for areas where com- ment is open to all. This content is distinct from automated spam in form but not in kind-both spam and hol- low contributions impair the coherency of the discussion at hand and, eventually, erode online communities.
  In the analog world, the opportunity to judge popularity with numbers barely even presents itself outside of political elections. Context dictates everything in physical communities. A chance encounter with a sing e acquaintance can change one's entire perspective, regardless of that person's clout in circles extraneous to your own In a digitally-mediated world,connection between individuals is of still para- mount importance. Yet, friend and follower counts tend to obscure this fact with a layer of generality that can get in the way of a successful personal connection And the way in which websites present these numbers make an impact on how users respond to them The contrast between online video portals You- Tube and Vimeo presents a great example of the difference between sites driven by numbers and sites driven by community.
  Some videos on YouTube with just a few hundred views readily provoke personal attacks on the up- loader. A video hosted by Vimeo, in contrast, seems to have some inherent guarantee of quality in the feedback. It's likely that the emphasis on advertisements has put YouTube in a position where they need those sexy numbers of view counts and subscribers to succeecL Meanwhile, Vimeo's reliance on premium members forces a focus on the experience of the content creator. Spam are more significant to the creator than to the consumer, and it's more than a coincidence that there is a real lack of offensive comments on Vimeo.
  My Community Manager Co-founder, Brandie McCallum, explains, "As similiar as YouTube and Vimeo are, their audiences and therefore communities are vastly different. This plays into what content is being shared and commented on A paid community is going to be a lot more exclusive and less forgiv- ing where an open community's members are all screaming to be heard through the noise. " The takeaway is not t at Vimeo's model is economically or morally superior; it is merely different, and it is feasible on its own ground .
  Creating an emnronment for social growth is important, but never as important as the social growth itself. What truly matters in social media, regardless of the type of media, is the connection between one human being and another. Let's never forget that.

1. For social media influence, numbers function as _____.
[A] a glamorous medium
[B] a powerful weapon
[C] a wicked devil
[D] a double-edged sword
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.
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【2】 单选

2. It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that _____.
[A] popularity can't be judged with numbers in political elections
[B] context plays ittle in one's perspective in the digitally-mediated world
[C] friend and follower counts misrepresent the importance of individual connection
[D] people get more distant in physical communities than in online communities
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.
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【3】 单选

3. Vimeo lacks offensive comments because it values _____.
[A] content over counts
[B] quantity over quality
[C] the consumer over the producer
[D] membership over advertising
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.
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【4】 单选

4. Brandie McCallum holds that Vimeo's model is _____.
[A] similar to YouTube's
[B] different from YouTube's
[C] superior to YouTube's
[D] inferior to YouTube's
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.
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【5】 单选

5. Which of the following would the author think is the most important for social media growth?
[A] Environment.
[B] Relationship.
[C] Numbers.
[D] Model.
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.
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【6】 单选

[A] 全文掌握

[B] 粗心

[C] 理解不够


【全文精解】

  本文选自U.S.Netws&World Report《美国新闻和世界报道》2013. 08. 06一篇题为YouTube andVimeo Versus the Trolls(YouTube和Vimeo对抗水贴)的文章。作者通过分析指出“在线好友量、访问量”不能衡量社交媒体的影响力,社交媒体的根本元素在于促进人与人之间的联系。主要亮点有:文章话题新颖,结构流畅:整体结构为“提出问题(第一段)——回答问题(第二至六段)”,回答问题过程又采用了典型的“先让步——后转折’’方式。
   Ⅰ提出问题“用数字衡量社交媒体影响力是否合理”,并退步承认其合理之处。首先指出现象“主要社交媒体在量化线上社交”;随后提出问题:“通过‘好友量,访问量,点赞数,等数字衡量社交媒体影响力是否合理”;紧接着让步承认“数字所体现的线上社交”与“现实社交’’确实有一定相关性。主要逻辑衔接是:①前两句指出现象:首句以趣味性短句吸引读者注意,第二句说明指出现象,counts offriends,followers,likes and views说明首句numbers所指(社交媒体中的各种数字)。②第三句提出本文核心问题,social media由上句Facebook and YouTube扩大而来;using these means则指代上句dis-play counts of...;Does it really make sense则表明作者对此的怀疑态度。③第四、五句开始作答,先退步承认“数字量化’’合理的一面;第四句certainly表示让步,暗示下文转折,第五句进一步解释第四句观点,其中correlate with...be realⅡ乎应上句not irrelevant。核心关键词为:①numbers(数字);②measuresocial media influence(衡量社交媒体影响力);③not irrelevant(并非不相关)。
   Ⅱ转而指出社交媒体“重视高点击/访问量”背后的弊端。首先指出可以畅所欲言的地方(多数(公开的)社交媒体)经常存在“侮辱性语言”和“网络口水战”,随后指出这些言论会打乱讨论,损害网络社区。注:Trolls——刷屏,在网络论坛故意发布煽动性文章。Flame wars——网络论战,用户相互发送侮辱性言语。主要逻辑衔接是:①段首句Yet these numbers come with a cost与上段Certainly,num-bers are not irrelevant形成转折对比,指出用数字衡量社交媒体影响力的代价。②第二、三句具体阐释首句,contaminate online discussion,erode online communities是首句cost的具体表现;第三句this con-tent指代上句的“trolls’’和“flame wars”;impair the coherency of the discussion呼应上句contaminateonline  discussion;eventually 一词引出更深层内容erode online communities,表明两句间递进关系。核心关键词为:①a cost(代价);②contaminate online discussion(玷污网上讨论);③erode online communi-ties(侵蚀网络社区)。
   Ⅲ通过与现实世界的对比,进一步阐述社交媒介“数字量化”社交行为的弊端。首先指出在现实社会,“用数量来衡量一个人的受欢迎程度”的做法仅限于政治选举,“环境’’而非“数字’’支配着人们的生活;随后指出在数媒世界,“个体之间的联系’’依然非常重要,但“好友量和粉丝数”等数字可能有碍人际关系的成功建立,而社交媒体如何呈现这些数字也会影响用户的反应,最后引出“数字驱动型’’与“社区驱动型”两种社交媒体进行说明。主要逻辑衔接是:①段落以In the analog world(在现实世界)和in adigitally-mediated world(在数媒世界)表明论述角度的转变,将段落分为两个意群。②前三句以“反向说明(现实世界并非数字主宰)——正向表述(现实世界实为环境主宰)——举例说明’’的逻辑指出现实世界情形。其中the analog world和physical communities同义复现,numbers和Contexts形成对立面;achance encounter为对context的举例说明,that person's clout in circles则是对numbers的回应,从而以假设实例具体解释前两句观点。③后四句指出数媒世界情形。…still…Yet…And形成呼应,全面说明数媒世界的情形,并步步引出作者的语义重点。第七句presents a great example表明该句引出对上文(第六句)的例证,同时提出下文论述对象。 the difference between sites回应上句the way in whichwebsites present...;sites driven by numbers和sites driven by community形成对比双方。核心关键词为:①Context(环境);②physical communities(现实世界);③digitally-mediated world(数媒世界);④theway in which websites present these numbers(社交媒介呈现这些数字的方式)。
   Ⅳ第四、五段承接第三段末句,说明“数量驱动型网站”(以YouTube为代表)和“社区驱动型网站”(以Vimeo为代表)的区别及影响。第四段指出二者模式上的区别。首先指出YouTube及Vimeo上视频所得到的反馈质量不同,随后指出其原因在于二者采取了不同的模式(吸引广告带来的流量需求vs依赖会员带来的质量需求)。主要逻辑衔接是:①前两句说明现象;in contrast实现句间衔接、将You-Tube和Vimeo列为对比双方;readily provoke personal attacks VS guarantee of quality in the feedback则表明二者得到反馈质量的优劣差异。②后三句解释现象原因;第三句It's likely引出对原因的推测,第四句的meanwhile表示第三、四两句间对比关系,连接起YouTube与Vimeo的不同模式,第五句对Vimeo模式做进一步分析。三句中围绕YouTube的表达need those sexy numbers of view counts andsubscribers to succeed和围绕Vimeo的表达reliance on premium members,there is a real lack of offen-sive comments形成对比。核心关键词为:①emphasis on advertisements(重视广告);②reliance on pre-mium members(依赖高级会员)。
   V指出YouTube和Vimeo不同模式的影响。首先借“我的社区经理人”联合创始人之口指出付费社区(以Vimeo为代表)更排他更不宽容,开放社区(以YouTube为代表)则更喧闹更杂乱,随后作者退步指出二者模式只有不同,没有优劣。主要逻辑衔接是:①前三句引用他人话语以说明YouTube和Vimeo不同模式的影响。其中第二句This指代第一句引用内容;第三句具体说明第二句,且A paidcommunity和an open community分别对应第一句的Vimeo和YouTube。②第四句通过取舍结构Thetakeaway is not...it is merely...进一步引出作者对二者模式的评价。核心关键词为:①more exclusiveand less forgiving(更排他,更不宽容);②screamlng to be heard(喧嚣)。  
   Ⅵ总结全篇,明确作者观点。指出创造一个有益社交的环境很重要,但总不如交往本身的发展重要。社交媒体中真正重要的是人与人之间的联系。(暗含对首段问题的作答:“数量”呈现出来的社交不能离开“实质’’的交往联系)。主要逻辑衔接是:①前两句通过...is important,but never as importantas...和What truly matters is...regardless of...相衔接,并传达作者强烈的情感色彩,道出社交媒体中最重要的因素“人与人实现交往’’。②第三句再次强调,that回指第二句内容。核心关键词为:①socialgrowth(社会成长);②the connection between one human being and another(人与人的联系)。


【全文翻译】

  数字很招人眼。 Facebook and YouTube为了招揽访问者在重要位置陈列好友量、跟随量、喜欢量和访问量。然而,在数字时代,通过这些方法真的能够用来衡量社交媒体的影响力吗?诚然,数字不是不相关。通常,线上高联系量与线下高联系量是相关的,更不用说虚拟联系就其自身而言就具有真实性。  
  但是,这些数字也伴随代价而生。大家畅所欲言的领域经常存在“侮辱性语言”和“网络口水战”问题,即,用户用攻击性或无关性言语玷污线上讨论。言论内容与“自动发送的垃圾邮件”在形式上截然不同,而在性质上完全相似——无论是滥发的垃圾邮件还是空洞的言论发表都有损当前讨论的连贯性和凝聚力,最终侵蚀网络社区。
  在虚拟世界,“用数量来衡量受欢迎程度”仅仅在政治选举中勉强奏效。而在现实世界中,环境支配一切。与某个熟人的一次偶遇能改变一个人的整个视野,不管那个人的社交圈与你的相差多远。在数媒世界中,个体之间的联系仍然非常重要,然而,好友量和追随量趋于将此事实混淆为单二层面的数据之大,而此有碍成功人际关系的建立。网站对这些数字的展现方式也会影响到用户的反应。在线视频门户网站YouTube和Vimeo的差异为“数量驱动式网站’’和“社区驱动式网站”的区别提供了很好的例证。
  YouTube上,一些只有几百访问量的视频的上传者也会招致人身攻击。与之相反,Vimeo上的视频反馈则似乎具有一定的内在质量保证。这很有可能是因为YouTube对广告的重视使其需要那些招人眼的访问量和订阅者数量以求成功。而与此同时,Vimeo对于高级会员的依赖使其关注视频内容创作者的体验。滥发的垃圾邮件对创作者而非消费者更重要,Vimeo真正缺乏攻击性评论绝非仅仅偶然。
  “我的社区经理”联合创建人布兰迪·麦卡勒姆解释说,“酷似如YouTube和Vimeo,其用户大不同,因此社区也大不同,这就影响到所分享和评论的内容。‘付费社区’ 更具排他性,缺乏宽容性,‘开放社区’ 成员则一路喧闹、好让人听见。”其核心内容并非是说Vimeo模式就经济或道德而言就更高一筹,它仅仅是不同,适用于自己而已。
  为社会成长创建一个环境很重要,但远不如社会成长自身重要。对于社交媒体而言,不管它为何种形式,真正重要的还在于人和人之间的联系,请永远记住这一点。

  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
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