精读3


题 目 排 序: 题目类型  |  题目热度  |  题目难度

答 题 方 式: 单题练习(每做一题核对一题答案)   |    模拟考试(做完所有题一次性核对答案)

【1】 单选

   Leading students of capitalism have been pronouncing the death rites of family companies for dec- ades, arguing that family firms would be marginalised by the arrival of industrial capitalism Yet the pro- portion of Fortune 500 companies that can be described as family companies increased from 15% in 2005 to 19% today. That is largely because of the rise of emerging economies, in which family firms are more common. But even in the rich world family companies are these days holding their own.
   Why have family companies reversed the tide? Family firms have far fewer defects than in the past, largely because they have got better at addressing their obvious weaknesses.
   These days it is rare for a family boss to hand his job on to an obvious incapable successor. Most family companies train future leaders by sending them to business schools and putting them through their paces in a succession of lower level jobs. A growing number have become masters at moving family mem- bers from executive jobs to supervisory roles in the boardroom. An entire consulting industry exists to help families deal with the peculiar dynamics of their companies, such as managing personal conflicts and sidelining thick relations without hurting their feelings.
   Family firms' strengths, meanwhile, are just as important today as they were in the early days of capitalism . They solve the "agency problem" that Adam Smith put his finger on in "The Wealth of Na- tions" when he argued that hired managers would never have the same "anxious alertness" in running comparues as the owners. Family managers are often prudent: companies such as Walmart, Koch Indus- tries and Mars& Co are famous for running a tight ship with humble headquarters, lean management and an obsession with operational efficiency. They are good at thinking in terms of generations rather than quarterly results.
   But the emerging world is currently witnessing a battle for the soul of the family firm* Old-model family companies are relying on political connections to protect them from global competition and complex cross-ownership structures designed to give families maximum control for minimum cash. New-model family firms are professionally managed, transparent outfits whose owners maintain long-term vision and quality but avoid the sort of wheeling and dealing that made them rich in the first place. The best way to ensure that the right side wins is to increase competition Emerging-world governments should also out- law cross-ownership and strengthen the rights of non-family shareholders.
   The other great problem with family compames, which plagues the West as well as the emerging world9 is that the weaker members of the breed have failed to learn from the stronger members. Too many fail to make even the most basic plans for the future. Too many lack the ambition to think that they can compete with the best in the world The remarkable record of the best family firms should remind millions of business owners that, in the corporate world at least, you do not have to surrender family control in order to prosper.

11. It can be learned from the first paragraph that family firms_____.
[A] have further developed due to industrial capitalism
[B] have migrated from the West to the emerging world
[C] have managed to survive their death doom
[D] have been in retreat for long in the rich world
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.
登录后可以做题并查看详细解题过程; 分值【10.0
【2】 单选

12. Nowadays most family companies tend to_____.
[A] appoint leaders mainly based on personal ability
[B] seek managerial talents from lower-level positions
[C] weaken relatives' power despite their capability
[D] rely on consulting companies to ensure stability
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.
登录后可以做题并查看详细解题过程; 分值【10.0
【3】 单选

13. Paragraph 4 implies that compared with hired ones,family managers are usually _____.
[A] more obsessed with downsizing company
[B] more anxious about short-term troubles
[C] less alert to operational risk and cost control
[D] less concerned about immediate profits
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.
登录后可以做题并查看详细解题过程; 分值【10.0
【4】 单选

14. According to the author, old-model family firms in the emerging world should _____.
[A] come to a compromise with new-model ones
[B]join global competition to develop more healthily
[C]cut off their contact with political organizations
[D]hand out part of power to non-family shareholders
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.
登录后可以做题并查看详细解题过程; 分值【10.0
【5】 单选

15. The author implied in the last paragraph that _____.
[A] successors should learn from stronger family membes
[B]death of many family firms results from lack of ambition
[C]tightening family control can help family firms prosper
[D]lack of confidence hampers many family firms' progress
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.
登录后可以做题并查看详细解题过程; 分值【10.0
【6】 单选

[A] 全文掌握

[B] 粗心

[C] 理解不够


【全文精解】

  本文选自The Economist《经济学人》2014. 11. 01一篇题为Relative success:there are importantlessons to be learnt from the surprising resilience of family firms(建立在血缘关系上的成功:家族企业的惊人恢复带给人们的重要启示)的文章。本文介绍了当今家族企业克服缺点、发挥优势,打破了“死亡预言”,但家族企业也存在一些问题,想要谋求长远发展依然长路漫漫。本文主要亮点:①话题“家族企业的发展’’较为新颖,是当今经济生活热议话题;②文章结构清晰,按照“引题‘家族企业打破死亡预言’(第一段)——分析原因‘克服缺点、发扬优点’(第二至四段)——家族企业还存在的问题‘新老式家族企业的竞争、弱势企业缺少雄心和规划’(第五、六段)’’的脉络展开论述。
  Ⅰ引题“家族企业打破死亡预言”。文章开篇直接介绍资本主义学者对家族企业的死亡预言;随后转折以数据说明相反的实际情况“家族企业不仅没有衰退、反而有所发展”。主要逻辑衔接是:①首句介绍资本主义学者对家族企业的死亡预言(pronouncing the death rites of family companies),并指出原因“工业资本主义的到来将使家族企业边缘化’’。②第二、三、四句转折( yet)描述真实情况。第二句先行通过数据对比“全球五百强企业中家族企业的比例从2005年的15%上升至如今的19%”说明家族企业不仅没有衰退,反而有所发展。第三句指出主要原因(largely because)“新兴国家的兴起”。第四句随即说明富裕国家,即发达国家中,家族企业的情况“屹立不倒”(holding their owri)。该三句与首句形成对比,暗示家族企业抵挡住了工业资本主义的负面影响,走出了学者所预言的死亡厄运。核心关键词为:①pronouncing the death rites of family companies(预言家族企业的死亡仪式);②increased(增长);③holding their own(屹立不倒)。
  Ⅱ提出问题“家族企业为何能扭转时局”,并给出第一个原因:克服企业缺点。本段首先承上提出本文讨论的话题“家族企业缘何能打破死亡预言?”,然后给出原因之一“家族企业缺点比以前少了很多”。主要逻辑衔接是:①首句承上提出问题,reversed the tide(扭转时局)总结首段家族企业过去的发展趋势,why提问,引发下文讨论。②第二句先行总说原因之-:have far fewer defects than in the past、have got better at addressing their obvious weaknesses一方面总体指出家族企业处理自身缺点更加得心应手,另一方面,并未明确说明家族企业有何缺点,设下疑问,从而引出下文第三段的具体解释。核心关键词为:①Why(为什么);②have far fewer defects(缺点更少)。
  Ⅲ承接第二段第二句具体解释家族企业如何更好地处理自身缺点。首先指出家族企业更加注重培养有能力的接班人;然后指出家族企业能更好地处理亲属的权力问题。主要逻辑衔接是:①首两句指出家族企业更加注重接班人的培养。首句中These days it is rare.an obvious incapable successor反向暗示之前家族企业的缺点:更看重接班人的亲属关系,而不管接班人能否胜任,具有盲目性。第二句随后指出如今家族企业培养接班人的方式“去商学院学习、从基层锻炼’’,克服了之前任人唯亲的缺点。②第三句指出家族企业能更好地处理亲属在企业中的权力的问题。moving family members from exec-utive jobs to supervlsory roles in the boardroom说明家族企业能更好地根据家庭成员的能力而调动他们的岗位,反向暗示之前家族企业的另一缺点“企业用人过分注重亲属关系,未能任人唯贤唯能,未能人尽其才”。第四句随即补充指出有一整套专门处理家族企业特别变动的咨询行业来帮助企业处理相关问题,因此企业在处理亲属关系和亲属在公司的权力的问题上更加得心应手,能最大限度减少内耗,最大限度发挥亲属作用,家族企业发展更加健康。核心关键词为:A growing number have become mas-ters...(越来越多的家族企业更加精通……)。
  Ⅳ指出家族企业能够扭转时局的原因之二:发扬企业优点。首先总说家族企业一直以来都将其优点发扬光大,随后予以具体说明“解决了‘代理问题’、家族企业在管理上更加精明谨慎、着眼长远”。主要逻辑衔接是:①首句总说家族企业依然发扬其优点。 just as important today as they were in theearly days of capitalism强调家族企业优势自从资本主义早期以来一直得以保持和发扬。 meanwhile(与此同时)体现本段与第二段的并列逻辑关系。②第二、三、四句分别具体说明家族企业的优势。第二句指出家族企业解决了亚当·斯密提出的“代理问题”,解决方法是家族企业老板自己管理企业。“anx-ious alertness" in running companies即为家族企业的优势之一:在企业运营中有“焦虑的警觉性”,也即企业所有者对企业运营风险更加警觉小心。第三句指出优势之二:家族企业管理者非常精明谨慎( pru-dent),并举例具体说明:running a tight ship(纪律严明)、humble headquarters(总部低调)、lean manage-ment(管理精简)、an obsession with operational efficiency(注重运营效率)。第四句指出优势之三:着眼长远。 generations(代、一代人)和quarterly results(季度成果)为借代用法,指“长远利益”和“短期利益’’。核心关键词为:Family firms'   strengths(家族企业的优势)。
  V转折指出家族企业存在的问题之一:新兴国家中家族企业的性质还存争议。本段首先承上“家族企业的优势’’转折指出新兴国家中家族企业依然存在的问题“家族企业的性质还存争议”;然后具体说明老式和新式家族企业的特点;最后作者提出问题的解决之道。主要逻辑衔接是:①首句承上转折( but),总说新兴国家中家族企业存在的问题:企业性质还存争议(a battle for the soul of the familyfirm),其中the soul为比喻用法,用“灵魂”比喻企业的“性质’’。②第二、三句分别介绍老式(Old-model)和新式( New-model)家族企业的特点。前者依附政治关系避免全球竞争、依靠复杂的交叉持股结构最大限度控制企业;而后者管理专业、运营透明、着眼长远、避免不择手段的致富。通过对比不难发现,作者在描述老式家族企业时,用词趋于贬义(relying on political connections to protect them from globalcompetition,complex cross-ownership structures),而在描述新型家族企业时用词趋于褒义(profession-ally managed, transparent outfits、maintain long-term vision and quality、avoid the sort of wheeling anddealing),作者倾向暗含其中。③第四、五句指出针对上述问题的解决之道(The best way to ensure thatthe right side wins):增加竞争、立法禁止交叉持股、强化非家族成员的股东的权益。其中increase com-petition和outlaw cross-ownership明确针对老式家族企业“依附政治关系避免竞争”、“复杂交叉持股”的特点,作者站位更加清晰明了。核心关键词为:a battle for the soul of the family firm(一场关于家族企业性质的战争)。
  Ⅵ指出家族企业存在的另一个问题:弱势企业缺少未来规划和雄心,未能学习强势企业的经验。本段首先直接指出家族企业的另一个问题并具体解释,最后作者提出建议。主要逻辑衔接是:①首句直指家族企业的另一个大问题(The other great problem):弱势企业未能向强势企业学习。其中breed意为“(人或物的)类型、种类”,the breed此处指“家族企业”。 Plagues the West as well as the emergingworld说明该问题存在的范围“发达国家和新兴国家”,与第五段中“家族企业的性质斗争仅存在于新兴国家’’相照应。②第二、三句用too many回指首句中the weaker members of the breed,以并列句式说明弱势企业的缺点“对未来没有规划、缺少雄心”,反向暗示强势的顶尖家族企业在发展过程中对未来有明确规划、拥有雄心。③第四句总结指出“顶尖家族企业的经验提醒企业老板们,要想谋求发展,不一定非要放弃家族对企业的控制”,侧面传达作者观点“家族式企业拥有光明的发展前景,企业老板要充满信心、做好规划’’。核心关键词为:The other great problem with family companies(家族企业的另一个大问题)。


【全文翻译】

  研究资本主义最主要的学者数十年来一直在宣称家族企业的灭亡,他们认为工业资本主义的到来将使家族企业边缘化。但是如今,财富500强中能够称之为家族企业的比例从2005年的15%上升到了现在的19%。其中主要原因是新兴经济体的崛起,在新兴经济体中家族企业更加常见。但即使在发达国家,当今的家族企业依然屹立不倒。
  家族企业为何能扭转时局?家族企业的缺点比过去少了许多,很大程度上是因为他们处理那些明显的缺点时更加得心应手。
  现在很少有哪个家族企业的老板会将企业交给一个明显无能的继任者。大多数家族企业通过将子女送到商学院、让他们在一系列低层工作训练的方式来培养未来的领导者。越来越多的家族企业精通于将家庭成员从行政岗位调至董事会的监督岗位。社会上出现了帮助家族企业处理企业中特别变动的一整套咨询行业,处理诸如调解个人冲突、在不伤及个人情感的前提下削弱亲属权力等问题。
  与此同时,如今家族企业的优势也和资本主义早期一样重要。它们解决了亚当·斯密在《国富论》中指出的“代理问题”。亚当·斯密认为雇来的经理在公司运营上肯定不会有和公司老板一样的“焦虑的警觉性”。家族企业的老板通常很精明谨慎:诸如沃尔玛、科氏工业和马思咨询就以纪律严明、总部低调、管理精简,且强调运营效率而著称。这些企业都善于着眼长远,而非看重季度表现。
  但如今,一场关于家族企业的性质的战争正在新兴国家展开。老式家族企业一般依托政治关系免受全球性的竞争,并依靠复杂的交叉持股结构用最少的花费来最大限度地控制企业。新型家族企业管理专业、运营透明,企业老板拥有长远眼光和品质,避免为快速发家而不择手段的行为。确保正确一方获胜的最好方法是增加竞争。新兴国家的政府也应该立法禁止交叉持股,并强化非家族成员的股东的权益。
  家族企业另一个大问题同时困扰着西方和新兴国家,即较弱势的企业未能向较强的企业学习。很多企业甚至都没有做最基本的未来规划。很多家族企业缺少与世界顶尖企业竞争的雄心。顶尖家族企业的辉煌历史应该提醒数以百万计的企业老板,至少在商业领域,要想谋求企业繁荣发展,不一定非要放弃家族对企业的控制权。

  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
登录后可以做题并查看详细解题过程; 分值【10.0





0.2370s