The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied.
What is needed is a technology of behavior, but we have been slow to develop the science from which such a technology might be drawn.
As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood, however, effects once assigned to states of mind, feelings, and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions, and a technology of behavior may therefore become available.
They are the possessions of the autonomous (self-governing) man of traditional theory, and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements.
It will not solve our problems, however, until it replaces traditional prescientific views, and these are strongly entrenched.
Until these issues are resolved, a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected, and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.
The communications revolution has influenced both work and leisure and how we think and feel both about place and time, but there have been controversial views about its economic, political, social and cultural implications.
It was during the same time that the communications revolution speeded up, beginning with transport, the railway, and leading on through the telegraph, the telephone, radio, and motion pictures into the 20th-century world of the motor car and the air plane.
As time went by, computers became smaller and more powerful, and they became "personal" too, as well as institutional, with display becoming sharper and storage capacity increasing.
It is generally recognized, however, that the introduction of the computer in the early 20th century, followed by the invention of the integrated circuit during the 1960s, radically changed the process, although its impact on the media was not immediately apparent.
It was within the computer age that the term "information society" began to be widely used to describe the context within which we now live.
As was discussed before, it was not until the 19th century that the newspaper became the dominant pre-electronic medium, following in the wake of the pamphlet and the book and in the company of the periodical.
They should be quick to respond to letters to the editor, lest animal rights misinformation go unchallenged and acquire a deceptive appearance of truth.
Scientists need to respond forcefully to animal rights advocates, whose arguments are confusing the public and thereby threatening advances in health knowledge and care.
Finally, because the ultimate stakeholders are patients, the health research community should actively recruit to its cause not only well-known personalities such as Stephen Cooper, who has made courageous statements about the value of animal research, but all who receive medical treatment.
For example, a grandmotherly woman staffing an animal rights booth at a recent street fair was distributing a brochure that encouraged readers not to use anything that comes from or is tested in animals — no meat, no fur, no medicines.
To those who are unaware that animal research was needed to produce these treatments, as well as new treatments and vaccines, animal research seems wasteful at best and cruel at worst.
One such cause now seeks to end biomedical research because of the theory that animals have rights ruling out their use in research.
Leaders of the animal rights movement target biomedical research because it depends on public funding, and few people understand the process of health care research.
The winner, by a large margin, was a tiny Virginia company called Open Source Solutions, whose clear advantage was its mastery of the electronic world.
Straitford president George Friedman says he sees the online world as a kind of mutually reinforcing tool for both information collection and distribution, a spymaster's dream.
Among the firms making the biggest splash in this new world is Straitford, Inc., a private intelligence-analysis firm based in Austin, Texas.
Straitford's briefs don't sound like the usual Washington back-and-forthing, whereby agencies avoid dramatic declarations on the chance they might be wrong.
Open-source spying does have its risks, of course, since it can be difficult to tell good information from bad.
Next year, after a series of mergers is completed, just four railroads will control well over 90 percent of all the freight moved by major rail carriers.
These days the Net, which has already re-made such everyday pastimes as buying books and sending mail, is reshaping Donovan's vocation as well.
Some scholars conclude that a government with finite resources should simply stop paying for medical care that sustains life beyond a certain age — say 83 or so.
I also know that people in Japan and Sweden, countries that spend far less on medical care, have achieved longer, healthier lives than we have.
But not even a great health-care system can cure death — and our failure to confront that reality now threatens this greatness of ours.
These leaders are living proof that prevention works and that we can manage the health problems that come naturally with age.