While Washington and Jefferson privately expressed distaste for slavery, they also understood that it was part of the political and economic bedrock of the country they helped to create.
Works of several historians reveal the moral compromises made by the nation's early leaders and the fragile nature of the country's infancy.
The southern states would not have signed the Constitution without protections for the "peculiar institution", including a clause that counted a slave as three fifths of a man for purposes of congressional representation.
Copyright rested with the journal publisher, and researchers seeking knowledge of the results would have to subscribe to the journal.
The Internet — and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government-funded research by restricting access to it — is making access to scientific results a reality.
The report, by John Houghton of Victoria University in Australia and Graham Vickery of the OECD, makes heavy reading for publishers who have, so far, made handsome profits.
There is the so-called big deal, where institutional subscribers pay for access to a collection of online journal titles through site-licensing agreements.
Finally, there are open-access archives, where organizations such as universities or international laboratories support institutional repositories.
There is open-access publishing, typically supported by asking the author (or his employer) to pay for the paper to be published.
If he had played last season, however, he would have been one of 42.
Other models exist that are hybrids of these three, such as delayed open-access, where journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months, before making it freely available to everyone who wishes to see it.
I was living in so much frustration that that was my escape, to go to school, and get ahead and do better.
The kinds of interpersonal violence that women are exposed to tend to be in domestic situations, by, unfortunately, parents or other family members, and they tend not to be one-shot deals.
Alvarez's experience demonstrates the importance of finding ways to diffuse stress before it threatens your health and your ability to function.
I think that the kinds of things that women are exposed to tend to be in more of a chronic or repeated nature.
Adding to a woman's increased dose of stress chemicals, are her increased "opportunities" for stress.
In several of the studies, when stressed-out female rats had their ovaries (the female reproductive organs) removed, their chemical responses became equal to those of the males.
Studies of both animals and humans have shown that sex hormones somehow affect the stress response, causing females under stress to produce more of the trigger chemicals than do males under the same conditions.
The trend in sports, though, may be obscuring an unrecognized reality: Americans have generally stopped growing.
But as diet and health improved, children and adolescents have, on average, increased in height by about an inch and a half every 20 years, a pattern known as the secular trend in height.
Though typically about two inches taller now than 140 years ago, today's people — especially those born to families who have lived in the U.S. for many generations — apparently reached their limit in the early 1960s.
The bodies playing major professional sports have changed dramatically over the years, and managers have been more than willing to adjust team uniforms to fit the growing numbers of bigger, longer frames.
Moreover, even though humans have been upright for millions of years, our feet and back continue to struggle with bipedal posture and cannot easily withstand repeated strain imposed by oversize limbs.
Once you have a first draft on paper, you can delete material that is unrelated to your thesis and add material necessary to illustrate your points and make your paper convincing.
Instead of including that paragraph, she added one that described Lengel's crabbed response to the girls so that she could lead up to the A & P "policy" he enforces.
If you are working on a word processor, you can take advantage of its capacity to make additions and deletions as well as move entire paragraphs by making just a few simple keyboard commands.
It's worth remembering, however, that though a clean copy fresh off a printer may look terrific, it will read only as well as the thinking and writing that have gone into it.
The student who wrote "The A & P as a State of Mind" wisely dropped a paragraph that questioned whether Sammy displays chauvinistic attitudes toward women.
The first draft will appear on the page only if you stop avoiding the inevitable and sit, stand up, or lie down to write.
In the final paragraph about the significance of the setting in "A & P", the student brings together the reasons Sammy quit his job by referring to his refusal to accept Lengel's store policies.