While few crafts men or farmers, let alone dependents and servants, left literary compositions to be analyzed, it is obvious that their views are less fully intellectualized.
According to the standard history of American philosophy, nowhere else in colonial America was "so much importance attached to intellectual pursuits."
Among the most popular: paternity and kinship testing , which adopted children can use to find their biological relatives and families can use to track down kids put up for adoption.
Yet most ancestry testing only considers a single lineage, either the Y chromosome inherited through men in a father's line or mitochondrial DNA, which is passed down only from mothers.
It is a wise father that knows his own child, but today a man can boost his paternal (fatherly) wisdom — or at least confirm that he's the kid's dad.
DNA testing is also the latest rage among passionate genealogists and supports businesses that offer to search for a family's geographic roots .
More than 60,000 people have purchased the PTKs since they first become available without prescriptions last year, according to Doug Fog, chief operating officer of Identigene, which makes the over-the-counter kits.
To take this approach to the New Englanders normally means to start with the Puritans' theological innovations and their distinctive ideas about the church — important subjects that we may not neglect.
Critics also argue that commercial genetic testing is only as good as the reference collections to which a sample is compared.
In addition, the computer programs a company uses to estimate relationships may be patented and not subject to peer review or outside evaluation.
Coinciding with the groundbreaking theory of biological evolution proposed by British naturalist Charles Darwin in the 1860s, British social philosopher Herbert Spencer put forward his own theory of biological and cultural evolution.
He argued that human evolution was characterized by a struggle he called the "survival of the fittest", in which weaker races and societies must eventually be replaced by stronger, more advanced races and societies.
Boas felt that the culture of any society must be understood as the result of a unique history and not as one of many cultures belonging to a broader evolutionary stage or type of culture.
For example, British anthropologists Grafton Elliot Smith and W. J. Perry incorrectly suggested, on the basis of inadequate information, that farming, pottery making, and metallurgy all originated in ancient Egypt and diffused throughout the world.
Thus, in his view, diverse aspects of culture, such as the structure of families, forms of marriage, categories of kinship, ownership of property, forms of government, technology, and systems of food production, all changed as societies evolved.
In order to study particular cultures as completely as possible, Boas became skilled in linguistics, the study of languages, and in physical anthropology, the study of human biology and anatomy.
It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience; but this effect is not a part of its original motive.
Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution.
While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition, it is not so easy as in dealing with adults.
Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a common life we cannot help considering whether or not we are forming the powers which will secure this ability.
We are thus led to distinguish, within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering, a more formal kind of education — that of direct tuition or schooling.
There is a marked difference between the education which everyone gets from living with others, and the deliberate educating of the young.
Even today, in our industrial life, apart from certain values of industriousness and thrift, the intellectual and emotional reaction of the forms of human association under which the world's work is carried on receives little attention as compared with physical output.
We believe that if animals ran the labs, they would test us to determine the limits of our patience, our faithfulness, our memory for terrain.
If humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its distinctively human effect we may well believe that this lesson has been learned largely through dealings with the young.
Instead of casting a wistful glance backward at all the species we've left in the dust I.Q.-wise, it implicitly asks what the real costs of our own intelligence might be.
Research on animal intelligence also makes me wonder what experiments animals would perform on humans if they had the chance.
Plenty of other species are able to learn, and one of the things they've apparently learned is when to stop.
It takes more upkeep, burns more fuel and is slow off the starting line because it depends on learning — a gradual process — instead of instinct.
In the landmark 1975 decision Taylor vs. Louisiana, the Supreme Court extended the requirement that juries be representative of all parts of the community to the state level.